By their article, Blanton et al. have proved, as they intended, “that collective action theory should have an important role to play in the search for those factors that underwrite state-building”. Moreover, their article is groundbreaking above all because after its appearance, it will be difficult to ignore anthropological approaches to explanation of the most vital and essential issues of our time, including the fortune of global democracy.
Male risk-taking behavior is associated with personality traits and correlates with hormone titers, notably for testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Yet, these influences may be stronger in some individuals due to context or profession in which risk-taking occurs. We examine this possibility by investigating relationships of personality, aggression, and sensation seeking with T and C together with anthropometric measures in high risk-taking men: Russian alpinists (n = 55) and members of the Russian Special Forces (n = 33). They provided saliva samples before and after viewing a ~5 min video of aggressive male encounters and completed surveys after this task. After viewing the video, T increased in alpinists but decreased in Special Forces, and C increased in Special Forces. Alpinists scored higher than Special Forces in neuroticism and openness whereas Special Forces scored higher than alpinists in extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Verbal aggression, anger, hostility, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility were higher in alpinists than in Special Forces. Our findings suggest behavioral differences in high risk-taking men, influenced by profession-related individual differences in sensation seeking and hormonal response to challenges.
During the past decade the corpus of inscriptions pertaining to the Baax Witz court of Xultun has been significantly amplified thanks to recent archaeological investigations (e.g., Rivera Castillo and Saturno 2014; Saturno and Beltran 2016; Saturno et al. 2015, 2017; Hurst and Beltran 2020; Rossi 2015; Rossi and Stuart 2020) as well as newly identified polychrome vessels with dedicatory texts in private and institutional collections (e.g., Krempel and Matteo 2012, 2013; Matteo and Krempel 2011, 2020; Polyukhovych and Looper 2019). Here we present two heretofore unpublished polychrome vessels of unknown provenance (Figures 1-3 and 7-9), both of which can be ascribed to the pottery workshops of Xultun. One of these vessels provides us with additional evidence for Ix Yax We’n Chaak, a female ruler whose existence has just recently been revealed thanks to new in situ finds (Hurst and Beltran 2020:209-211; Rossi and Stuart 2020). The other fragmented vessel can, by means of a comparative analysis, stylistically be attributed to a Late Classic palace workshop of Xultun that operated during the reign of Yax We’n Chan K’inich (e.g., Garrison and Stuart 2004; Krempel and Matteo 2012, 2013).
Both vessels were likely confiscated from looters who got caught with their contraband goods in the Tikal area. Unfortunately, no information about their original place of encounter is known to us. In May of 2013, the two vessels were documented in the course of the Atlas Epigráfico de Petén Project, directed by Dmitri Beliaev, which had its focus on the documentation of Maya inscriptions in the storages of the Tikal National Park. They are currently preserved in the Tikal Center of Conservation and Research (Centro de Conservación e Investigación de Tikal, CCIT) among other ceramic objects (see also Beliaev and de León 2013:340-346; Beliaev et al. 2015:680-681).
The Triangular Theory of Love (measured with Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale – STLS) is a prominent theoretical concept in empirical research on love. To expand the culturally homoge- neous body of previous psychometric research regarding the STLS, we conducted a large-scale cross- cultural study with the use of this scale. In total, we examined more than 11,000 respondents, but as a result of applied exclusion criteria, the final analyses were based on a sample of 7332 participants from 25 countries (from all inhabited continents). We tested configural invariance, metric invariance, and scalar invariance, all of which confirmed the cultural universality of the theoretical construct of love analyzed in our study. We also observed that levels of love components differ depending on relationship duration, following the dynamics suggested in the Triangular Theory of Love. Supplementary files with all our data, including results on love intensity across different countries along with STLS versions adapted in a few dozen languages, will further enable more extensive research on the Triangular Theory of Love.
In January 2021, Uganda held a presidential election, which was won by the incumbent head of state Yoweri Museveni, who has begun his sixth term at the helm of the country. The present paper aims at assessing the results of the activity of the Ugandan leader, the peculiarities of his state administration, and the nature of his relations with the opposition. The authors also analyze the reasons for the growing dissatisfaction with Museveni's policies and the growing popularity of the young opposition leader Bobi Wine. It is noted that unlike many African leaders, Museveni apparently very early understood that the conquest of power was only half the battle: it was much more important to preserve and consolidate it. Therefore, as soon as he received the reins of government, he immediately began to implement "fundamental political changes" and socio-economic reforms: benefits were introduced for women and other vulnerable groups of the population, access to primary education was expanded, measures were taken to combat AIDS, etc. Attention to these issues distinguishes Museveni from previous Ugandan leaders and prompts a significant part of the country's residents to consider him the only guarantor of stability and prosperity - despite the growth of corruption and the expansion of repressive tactics against the opposition. Currently, there is no alternative in Uganda to Museveni, who has been in power for 34 years, but the escalating struggle with the opposition will certainly characterize his rule throughout the entire period until the next presidential elections in 2026. The paper pays special attention to the measures taken by the government to contain the COVID-19 pandemic.
Potbelly sculpture is one type of stone monuments from Southeastern Mesoamerica that was distributed on the Pacifi c slope and piedmont and in the Guatemalan Highlands. They represent seated fi gures of obese persons with arms clasping pot-like bellies, fat cheeks and closed eyes with puffy lids. The largest number of these monuments was found at Tak’alik Abaj and Monte Alto on the Pacifi c slope and at Kaminaljuyu in the Valley of Guatemala. Although it was widely believed that these crude fi gures predate Early Formative Olmec sculpture and could serve as its source, the earliest potbelly sculptures date to the late Middle Formative (ca. 650–500 BC). The splendor of this tradition can be dated between 500 BC and AD 100. Despite several decades of their research, the functions of the potbellies are still a matter of discussion. The sculptures were set up in the open ceremonial spaces of Late Formative chiefl y centers; at Santa Laticia where the original context was preserved, they were oriented to the neighboring mountain, which according to Mesoamerican beliefs was the dwelling place of the ancestors. In the paper major styles of potbelly tradition are redefi ned and their principal traits are revised. All the analyzed evidence show that potbellies were part of the ancestor worship and probably depicted deceased chiefs. Their extraordinary obesity is related to the local Pacifi c Coast variant of the concept of “Flowery World” that emphasized the abundance of the food and other riches sent to the descendants by the ancestors.
In the 2010s, the issue of separatism in Africa gained special significance in connection with the emergence in 2011 of a new state - the Republic of South Sudan (RSS), where a military and political conflict has continued throughout the entire period of independent development, accompanied by massive casualties among the civilian population. The situation in the RSS underscores the weakness of secessionism as a tool for solving the problems of national identity, socio-economic development and political marginalization, and also raises the question of whether separatism in Africa is able to lead to stability, an improvement in living standards and an increase in the level of security of citizens of breakaway territories. The present paper examines the historical background of separatism in South Cameroon and of organizations and armed groups fighting for the separation of the region from the Republic of Cameroon and for the independence of the self-declared Republic of Ambazonia. Currently, the country is engulfed in a military and political conflict, the parties to which are the central (Francophone) government and the Anglophone secessionist movements, which include dozens of armed groups with varying goals and interests and which fight among themselves for influence on local communities, resources, and the right to represent Cameroon’s Anglophone minority in the international arena. In fact, South Cameroon is now in a state of war of all against all. The situation in South Cameroon is compounded by the fact that President Paul Biya’s government simultaneously has to fend off attacks by Boko Haram terrorists in the far north of the country and deal with a socio-economic crisis, which is accompanied by rising unemployment, which, in turn, allows insurgents to expand their ranks with relative ease. The authors note, however, that the separatists do not enjoy the support of the world community and, unlike many other African rebel movements, receive hardly any financial or military-technical assistance from outside, which dooms their armed struggle and increases the consequence of a peaceful agreement with the government.
This article examines the political and ideological implications of native language manuals published in the New England colonies in the 17th century. There were two such manuals published in that period – Roger Williams’s “A Key into the Language of America” and John Eliot’s “The Indian Grammar Begun”. Both works, apart from their practical purpose, were something of a political statement on contemporary political issues – the separation of powers first and foremost. Besides that, both offered, often in subtle ways, certain templates for native-colonial relations. The article explores the place of these works in the political landscape of both the colonies and England, and the specifics of the native-colonial relations models proposed by the authors.
Until not so long ago, the main area of genetic studies of aggressive behavior was represented by associative analysis of candidate genes, which were identified according to the relationship of phenotypic manifestations of aggression with the functioning of neuromediator and reproductive systems. Recent years have been marked by development of a new direction of genome-wide associative studies of aggression, which makes it possible to detect new genes that previously were not the object of interest to specialists. The present study is an analysis of aggressive behavior in Russian males living in the Moscow metropolis, using a panel of 250 SNP marker loci. In addition to SNP markers of known candidate genes, the panel contained single base substitutions in genes involved in the development and functioning of the brain, in the processes of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, and in the formation of interneuronal connections, as well as in genes associated with various brain pathologies. The panel of SNP markers also included control genes that were in no way associated with aggressive behavior or behavior in general. These are primarily housekeeping genes, as well as genes encoding proteins associated with chromatid cohesion, etc. Aggressive behavior was self- assessed using the Bass–Perry and reactive–proactive aggression questionnaires. After applying a number of filters, 35 males were included in the final sample. Fragments containing 250 single-nucleotide polymorphic sites of interest were sequenced on the Ion PGM System using the Ion 318TM Chip. The principal component analysis and clustering based on the Bayesian a posteriori probability did not identify subdivisions in the ana- lyzed sample of Russian males. For each aggression scale, a statistically significant association with a specific set of SNP markers was obtained, and only one polymorphic locus rs1047788 was associated with both phys- ical and reactive aggression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that most of the identified markers are associated with neuropeptides involved in the development and functioning of the nervous system as a whole and its regeneration and in the development of sections of the brain responsible for stress reactions, regulation of the humoral system, and intercellular signaling. For a number of markers from this set, it was possible to identify possible mechanisms of relationship to behavioral traits. The list of identified genes is as follows: corticotro- pin-releasing hormone, CRH; semenogelin-1 protein, SEMG1; intercellular interaction proteins, LAMC2 and ITGA2; DNA repair endonuclease, ERCC5; cohesin complex protein that provides conjugation of sister chromosomes, ESCO1; transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS15; apoptosis inhibitor, BIRC5; interferon beta-1, IFNB1; scaffold protein, XRCC1; heat shock protein, HSP90AA1.
Helping behavior is likely to have evolved to increase chances of survival of an individual and their group. Nevertheless, populations differ significantly in their eagerness to help, and little is known about populational and inter-individual determinants of these differences. Previous studies indicated that economic and physiological factors might influence helping behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of approach to resource management of a society (immediate-return economy vs. delayed-return economy), prenatal androgenization (based on second-to-fourth digit ratio), and physical strength (based on hand grip strength) on helping behavior toward others. Helping was assessed in terms of both general eagerness to help and differential helping toward: (1) kin, (2) other group members indiscriminately, (3) friends, and (4) those from whom help was obtained in the past. Based on data collected in two small-scale societies (n = 306), we found that people in the egalitarian immediate-return society (the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania) displayed helping behavior significantly more often than people in a more stratified delayed-return economy (Yali horticulturalists of Papua). Additionally, our results revealed that physical strength was a significant predictor of helping behavior in women but not in men. We discuss our findings in the light of the adaptive value of helping behavior.
This is a short description of the excavations of Russian expedition at El Encanto, Department of Peten, Guatemala in 2018
The key goal of the chapter is to summaries the most promising ideas and approaches to to the social organization of the people named the Rus’ of the 9th – 10th centuries and to the history of the Rurikid polity created by one of such groups around Kiev in the 10th century. This Rurikid local polity appeared circa 900. It was not a long process of “maturing” of its political structure from deep antiquity, but it was a fast outburst, that required risky experiments from this Rus’ Kiev’s community. This community in Kiev underwent rapid identical and cultural transformations. The Rurikid polity on the Dnieper in the middle of 10th century was a compact polity with the center in Kiev, around which other fortified settlements of the Rus’ people have been grouped along the radius. This basic territory around Kiev was surrounded on almost all sides by the territories of subordinated Slavic communities. It was a typical chiefdom with two (later three) levels of political control and the leading kin (lineage) of the princes (“chiefs”) Rurikids in the head of it. All attempts to prove that this polity was a “state” were inspired only by wishful thinking of different recearches and by their attempts of retrospective projection of the realities of the 11th century on the previous 10th century.
Polynesian Outliers represent several independent migrations from Western Polynesia into Melanesia and Micronesia, which developed in significant isolation under the pressure of severe ecological constraints. Their typical size is a few hundred persons and it is well documented that some reduced to less than twenty persons in the nineteenth century. Surprisingly, these societies were complex, typically, stratified into ‘nobles’, ‘commoners’ and ‘slaves’. There was a wide range of variation regarding how leadership and rules of succession were organised but we can speculate that their way of life was largely due to the ideas inherited from the great ancestors living on big islands.
Etymological analysis of socio-political terms in six Polynesian Outliers shows that the institutions of leadership and larger social groups were created and reinvented in the history of these islands many times, frequently, in accordance with the principle of growing conical clan. Interestingly enough, many new terms for larger social groups are derived from the words denoting places of residence indicating that they are constructed as landholding corporations. Expectedly, the words ‘chief’ and ‘noble person’ are more stable than ‘commoner’ and ‘slave’ in the history of Polynesian Outliers.
In the late 2019 – early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic spread all over the world, including in Africa. The “Giant of Africa”– Nigeria – registered the first case of infection in February, and in March the government already took a number of anti-crisis measures, including the closure of all airports for international flights and the suspension of the issuance of visas to citizens of many countries. In addition, on March 30, entry into Abuja, Lagos, and another 12 major cities, as well as interstate travel, was severely restricted; all offices and enterprises were closed, except for those of strategic importance; mass events and even walking on the street without a mask and unless in emergency was prohibited. Unlike Arab countries, which tightened measures to combat the pandemic only after the deaths of hundreds of citizens, the Nigerian authorities did not await for the virus to take a foothold. They began to act after the very first death, despite the small total number of infected. As a result, the spread of the COVID-19 in the densely populated country of 200 million people was slower than in South Africa and countries of North Africa. Owing to the experience gained in 2014 during the Ebola epidemic, which at the time affected several countries in West Africa, Nigeria was better than many other African countries prepared for the outbreak of the novel coronavirus.
In early May, despite the continued increase in the number of infected, the government had to ease the regime of self-isolation due to the threat of political destabilization and economic recession, falling incomes of citizens against the backdrop of the frozen economy, rising unemployment and, as a result, growing dissatisfaction with safety measures on the part of Nigerians, whose deplorable financial situation exorcised from their minds the threat the virus.
In this paper we present data on the altruistic behavior among ru- ral Meru and urban mixed-ethnic children of Dar-es-Salaam of Tanzania, based on their decision-making in three sets of sharing games. Particularly, we examine the readiness of rural and urban African schoolchildren to take prosocial, sharing and fairness decisions; we also reveal to what extent these decisions are congruent towards friends and anonymous peers and test the gender differences in the decision-making. Our results provide another confirmation of the parochial altruism hypothesis.
The chapter deals with main institutional and conceptual aspects of transition of Assyrian polity from city-state with a quite limited power of hereditary rulers to territorial state and Empire with royal autocracy and developed bureaucratic apparatus at the latter’s disposal. That process took place in the mid-fourteenth–early thirteenth centuries BCE. The situations before and after that period, including their institutional dimensions, are well-known, but the course of transition itself and its stages are more obscure. Changes in titles and epithets of the rulers in official and legal formulas, in ways of references to the rulers or their polity made by foreigners in diplomatic documents, etc., can to some degree serve as indicators of these stages. On the whole, it can be concluded that the main factor of the transition in question was successful military–territorial expansion which seems to have arisen in an explosive way (under Aššur-uballit I). Apparently, the beginning of that expansion became possible due to successful usage of the unexpectedly emerged and exceptional international conjuncture. Then, the expansion developed more or less constantly and increasingly. The author reconstructs some reflection of Assyrians themselves on this process and its key figures. He also attracts attention to some analogies between the Assyrian case and transition from the republican political order of a city-state to the regime of sole rule in classic antiquity.
Numerous factors, including family planning and modern contraception, disturb the potential associations between the number of children born and genetic factors in modern Western societies. The current progress of medicine and a relatively high level of well-being make it hard to test the association between children’s survival rates and genetic factors in Western societies either. The goal of the current study was to reveal the possible associations between the number of children born and the number of children survived till the age of 5 y. by the time of our study with a set of six genetic polymorphisms associated with serotonin, dopamine, androgen oxytocin behavioral effects; and to test for sex-specific effects of these polymorphisms in a traditional rural sample from Arusha and Singida Districts of Northern Tanzania. The data on 965 healthy individuals (520 men and 415 women) from traditional rural communities with high reproduction profiles were collected. All participants provided information on the number of children born and survived, and other demographic information, as well as buccal epithelium samples for DNA analysis. The data were analyzed using GLM ANCOVA and the APSampler nonparametric methodology. The gene association effects on reproduction and infant survival in men and women were demonstrated. We suggest that sex differences revealed in this study are in line with sexual selection pressure on reproduction and parenting in traditional societies.
Introduction describes the main aim of the volume as to present a novel approach to the study of social evolution. This approach is based on a look at, and analysis of social evolution through the evolution of social institutions associated with the rise and development of social complexity. Evolution is defined as the process of structural change. Within this framework, the society, or culture, is seen as a system composed of a great number of various social institutions that are interacting and changing. As a result, the whole structure of society is changing, that is evolving. Evolution does not have any particular direction, as any significant (that is, transforming the societal structure in any direction) change is evolutionary. Introduction gives an outline of the history of the notion of social institution and its conceptualization, and describes social institutions’ main characteristics and functions. It also summarizes the volume’s theoretical chapters and case studies.
Central topic of the chapter is the problem of survival of the traditions of Maya hieroglyphic writing in the Early Colonial period in the eastern part of Yucatan peninsula
Background: The specific role of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms in emotional support seeking, related to social norms and culturally normative behavior, has been discussed in several studies. Evidence on the association between aggression and OXTR polymorphisms has also been reported. The goal of the current study was to analyze the effect of the OXTR rs53576 polymorphism, prenatal testosterone effect (second-to-fourth digit ratio, or 2D:4D), and culture on aggression assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ).
Methods: The data were collected in Russia and Tanzania and included seven ethnic groups of European, Asian, and African origin. The total sample included 1705 adults (837 males, 868 females). All the subjects were evaluated with the BPAQ. As a measure of prenatal androgenization, the second and fourth digits were measured directly from hand, and the digit ratios were calculated. All the participants provided buccal samples, from which genomic DNA was extracted, and the OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism was genotyped. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0; the alpha level for all analyses was set at 0.05.
Results: The ethnic group factor was the most significant predictor of ratings on BPAQ (medium effect size for physical aggression, anger and hostility scales, and low for verbal aggression). To study the effect of sex, the OXTR polymorphism, and prenatal androgenization, we conducted the z-score transformation for BPAQ scales and 2D:4D for each ethnic group and pooled these data into new z-score variables. According to the GLM analysis after leveling the effects of culture (z-transformation), all four scales of BPAQ demonstrated association with sex (main effects), with men scoring higher on physical and verbal aggression and women scoring higher on anger and hostility. Anger and hostility scales were also associated with OXTR polymorphism and 2D:4D of the right hand. The lowest levels of anger and hostility were observed in individuals with the AA genotype, especially in men.