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The investigation is dedicated to the image of the medieval academic corporation that was constructed in its graduation processions. It is based on the statutes of the Portuguese university (1431).
This source contains detailed descriptions of required procedures and oaths, clothes, gifts etc. The first part analyzes origins and models of the Portuguese rituals, their relation with the symbolic traditions of other European universities (especially the studium of Bologna). Then it is observed how ‘global’ images of academic representation (that were used by various university corporations) correlated with social and cultural context of Portugal. The cases examined in the second part are: inclusion of the solemn graduation processions in the urban space of Lisbon, clothes as social representation established by the academic corporation in the statutes and by the Royal power (for example, in the Ordenações Afonsinas). So the study investigates how the concepts of corporation’s and estate’s honor were combined in the university status and symbolic practices.
This study raises the problem of the degree of influence of Sovietization on the climate of inter-ethnic relations in the annexed territories of Eastern Poland on the eve and in the first months of the Holocaust. The article focuses on two aspects of Sovietization – first, the Soviet economic policy and the transformation of trade in the Western regions of the BSSR in 1939-1941; second, the change in the social status of local merchants, especially Jewish merchants.
In this publication, the author comes to the conclusion that the Soviet economic transformations in the annexed Polish territories were contradictory. Due to the lack of Soviet trade infrastructure, supply channels, and retail personnel, the new administration resorted to the experience of "former" merchants, among whom were a large number of Polish Jews. As a result of this policy, many "former" merchants managed to get a job in state-owned trade institutions, which was considered very prestigious in the unfavorable economic situation. Under the circumstances, the impressive number of Jews among the employees of the state trade organization contributed to the increase in inter-ethnic tensions. On the other hand, in 1939-1941, most of the "former" traders actually continued their activities on the black market. The wide representation of local Jews in the illegal economy contributed to the fact that the struggle of the official authorities against speculators often looked like a struggle against some Jews. Thus, the acute economic crisis in the annexed Polish regions, as well as the inconsistent Soviet socio-economic policy in these lands, caused an escalation of inter-ethnic tensions and an increase in anti-Semitic sentiment. The socio-economic situation that developed in 1939-1941 under the influence of Soviet policy was one of the factors that provoked a surge of anti-Jewish violence in the summer of 1941.
The Muslim question in Late Imperial Russia is investigated via the deceptive strategeis of a Muslim jornalist, an impostor and double-dealer; M.-B. Hadjetlaché.. A micro-historical approach is developped.
The monograph is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in the theory of humanities and social theory.
This book is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in social sciences and theory of humanities.
The new volume in the “New sources on the history of Russia. Rossica Inedita” series introduces the “Notes from Siberia” by Ippolit Kanarsky, a memoir about the author’s service in the Irkutsk province in 1811–1813 written as a literary work in the sentimentalist genre. The memoir includes both valuable details from the life of provincial officialdom and quasi-ethnographic descriptions of various groups Kanarsky encountered in Siberia. Real episodes from the biography the author — a mid-level bureaucrat with Masonic connections — are narrated here side by side with the fictional ones, giving the “Notes from Siberia” the appearance of a literary hoax. This book is intended for scholars working in the fields of history and cultural studies, as well as for all readers interested in history.
This article does not pretend to criticize or to pay tribute to the theoretical discussion on the nature of colonial knowledge and the way it should be treated. Its main aim is to track the change in a scholar’s methodological approach toward his local assistants that actually affected both sides of this interaction. That was the key factor in the creation of colonial knowledge. Thus, I suggest showing how this interaction was used by both sides for their own benefit and what the strategies and foundations were for that kind of relationship. As the main case for this study, I have chosen Russian Turkologist-encyclopedist Alexander Samoilovich. Almost yearly from 1900 to 1936, Samoilovich attempted to visit regions inhabited by Turkic-speaking groups, and as a result, he was able to form a network of assistants. Therefore, Samoilovich's ideas and self-reflection are crucial for understanding his multiple contacts with the Others and the consequences of these interactions.
Utilizing the minutes of preparations of a manuscript textbook on the history of medicine (1948-1953), the authors reconstruct how it was decided to depict the history of world and Russian medicine; in so doing sacralizing the Soviet state and wildly overstating its care for the health of Soviet people. The archival documents allowed the authors of the article to show how the aspirations and interests of the medical elite in the sacralization of their own role encouraged historians of medicine to develop not a scientific, but an epic version of the past and to repress other versions through political accusations and condemnation of colleagues. The textbook, which had been created and discussed for a long time in the 1940s, was never published. Nevertheless, the authors' reconstruction of its aborted conception made it possible to reveal its enduring formulations in later Soviet and even present-day textbooks, and enduring capacity to shape a Soviet style historical imagination in doctors.
This issue of the Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik is comprising the full papers of the international
symposium on Gothic language, history and culture “The Goths Compared: East Germanic communities between Balticum, Pontus and the West” which was held on November 5–6, 2019 at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (hse) in Moscow. The symposium was organised by the Centre for Medieval Studies, HSE.
Until not so long ago, the main area of genetic studies of aggressive behavior was represented by associative analysis of candidate genes, which were identified according to the relationship of phenotypic manifestations of aggression with the functioning of neuromediator and reproductive systems. Recent years have been marked by development of a new direction of genome-wide associative studies of aggression, which makes it possible to detect new genes that previously were not the object of interest to specialists. The present study is an analysis of aggressive behavior in Russian males living in the Moscow metropolis, using a panel of 250 SNP marker loci. In addition to SNP markers of known candidate genes, the panel contained single base substitutions in genes involved in the development and functioning of the brain, in the processes of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, and in the formation of interneuronal connections, as well as in genes associated with various brain pathologies. The panel of SNP markers also included control genes that were in no way associated with aggressive behavior or behavior in general. These are primarily housekeeping genes, as well as genes encoding proteins associated with chromatid cohesion, etc. Aggressive behavior was self- assessed using the Bass–Perry and reactive–proactive aggression questionnaires. After applying a number of filters, 35 males were included in the final sample. Fragments containing 250 single-nucleotide polymorphic sites of interest were sequenced on the Ion PGM System using the Ion 318TM Chip. The principal component analysis and clustering based on the Bayesian a posteriori probability did not identify subdivisions in the ana- lyzed sample of Russian males. For each aggression scale, a statistically significant association with a specific set of SNP markers was obtained, and only one polymorphic locus rs1047788 was associated with both phys- ical and reactive aggression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that most of the identified markers are associated with neuropeptides involved in the development and functioning of the nervous system as a whole and its regeneration and in the development of sections of the brain responsible for stress reactions, regulation of the humoral system, and intercellular signaling. For a number of markers from this set, it was possible to identify possible mechanisms of relationship to behavioral traits. The list of identified genes is as follows: corticotro- pin-releasing hormone, CRH; semenogelin-1 protein, SEMG1; intercellular interaction proteins, LAMC2 and ITGA2; DNA repair endonuclease, ERCC5; cohesin complex protein that provides conjugation of sister chromosomes, ESCO1; transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS15; apoptosis inhibitor, BIRC5; interferon beta-1, IFNB1; scaffold protein, XRCC1; heat shock protein, HSP90AA1.
The new complex of Greek inscriptions from Machkhomeri fortress is a unique evidence of the Christianization of Lazica in the 6th c. Along with the inscriptions from Sepieti and Vashnari (now in the Ozurgeti Museum) churches, these are the first monuments of lapidary epigraphy from Lazica and the only complex of inscriptions known there. Three lapidary inscriptions have different characters: one is an invocative and building inscription, the second is invocative and prohibitive, and the third is probably prohibitive. All three of these inscriptions are executed according to the epigraphic style of the mid-6th ‒ mid-7th c., but by different carvers; especially the form of epsilon is different: drop-shaped (incl. with a gap at the top), rectangular and diamond-shaped, that indicates Lazica’s acquaintance with different varieties of the Greek epigraphic ductus. The graffiti inscriptions on the slab, possibly of school character, should also be considered as evidence of the spread of Greek alphabet in Lazica; but also here the form of alpha varies between one with a broken crossbar (like on the lapidary inscriptions of Machkhomeri) and the other with a loop. One should also pay attention to the names of the ktetors: Gorgonios and Theonas, who, as in the case of Sepieti (Philoktistos), are not of local, but of Greek and Christian origin. Probably, the builder of the martyrium basilica, Gorgonios, dedicated it to the holy Forty martyrs of Sebasteia, bearing himself the name of one of them. Also important are the parallels to the formulas of Machkhomeri inscriptions found in the epigraphic traditions of Asia Minor and the East (Arabia and Syria), which may suggest the origin of the ktetors or carvers.
Conducted from 1996 to 2002, the project Translation Literature in the Social Sciences changed the face of post-Soviet Russian academia. Not only did it result in the translation of more than 400 key publications in human and social sciences, but it also created a community of scholars and translators specialising in social sciences and humanities, many of whom have continued shaping Russian academic landscape until today. This chapter discusses the aims, scope and results of the translation project, as well as the ramifications that it had for contemporary academia. Particular attention is paid to the transformation and changing praxis of translations from Soviet to Post-Soviet Russia.
Helping behavior is likely to have evolved to increase chances of survival of an individual and their group. Nevertheless, populations differ significantly in their eagerness to help, and little is known about populational and inter-individual determinants of these differences. Previous studies indicated that economic and physiological factors might influence helping behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of approach to resource management of a society (immediate-return economy vs. delayed-return economy), prenatal androgenization (based on second-to-fourth digit ratio), and physical strength (based on hand grip strength) on helping behavior toward others. Helping was assessed in terms of both general eagerness to help and differential helping toward: (1) kin, (2) other group members indiscriminately, (3) friends, and (4) those from whom help was obtained in the past. Based on data collected in two small-scale societies (n = 306), we found that people in the egalitarian immediate-return society (the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania) displayed helping behavior significantly more often than people in a more stratified delayed-return economy (Yali horticulturalists of Papua). Additionally, our results revealed that physical strength was a significant predictor of helping behavior in women but not in men. We discuss our findings in the light of the adaptive value of helping behavior.
This is a short description of the excavations of Russian expedition at El Encanto, Department of Peten, Guatemala in 2018
The paper examines social differences in the understanding of the concept of ‘friendship’ in late 18th – early 19th century Russia deployed in the unpublished correspondence of Count Aleksandr Vorontsov, a member of the social elite of the Catherinean Age, and Aleksei D´iakonov, an obscure official who was Vorontsov’s client. While letter exchange was a kind of freemasonic practice, and both correspondents were members of a Masonic lodge, Vorontsov used sentimentalist language and addressed his client as “friend,” trying to erase or at least obscure the social boundaries between them. Social equality, even as a rhetorical formula, was progressively becoming possible between an aristocrat and an educated commoner such as D´iakonov, and it unfolded in rhetorical terms. D´iakonov adopted vis-à-vis his patron an attitude that reflected their respective positions on the hierarchical ladder, thus conforming to the traditional behavior of a Russian official and avoiding Western (Masonic, or sentimentalist) rhetoric of equality.
The key goal of the chapter is to summaries the most promising ideas and approaches to to the social organization of the people named the Rus’ of the 9th – 10th centuries and to the history of the Rurikid polity created by one of such groups around Kiev in the 10th century. This Rurikid local polity appeared circa 900. It was not a long process of “maturing” of its political structure from deep antiquity, but it was a fast outburst, that required risky experiments from this Rus’ Kiev’s community. This community in Kiev underwent rapid identical and cultural transformations. The Rurikid polity on the Dnieper in the middle of 10th century was a compact polity with the center in Kiev, around which other fortified settlements of the Rus’ people have been grouped along the radius. This basic territory around Kiev was surrounded on almost all sides by the territories of subordinated Slavic communities. It was a typical chiefdom with two (later three) levels of political control and the leading kin (lineage) of the princes (“chiefs”) Rurikids in the head of it. All attempts to prove that this polity was a “state” were inspired only by wishful thinking of different recearches and by their attempts of retrospective projection of the realities of the 11th century on the previous 10th century.
Polynesian Outliers represent several independent migrations from Western Polynesia into Melanesia and Micronesia, which developed in significant isolation under the pressure of severe ecological constraints. Their typical size is a few hundred persons and it is well documented that some reduced to less than twenty persons in the nineteenth century. Surprisingly, these societies were complex, typically, stratified into ‘nobles’, ‘commoners’ and ‘slaves’. There was a wide range of variation regarding how leadership and rules of succession were organised but we can speculate that their way of life was largely due to the ideas inherited from the great ancestors living on big islands.
Etymological analysis of socio-political terms in six Polynesian Outliers shows that the institutions of leadership and larger social groups were created and reinvented in the history of these islands many times, frequently, in accordance with the principle of growing conical clan. Interestingly enough, many new terms for larger social groups are derived from the words denoting places of residence indicating that they are constructed as landholding corporations. Expectedly, the words ‘chief’ and ‘noble person’ are more stable than ‘commoner’ and ‘slave’ in the history of Polynesian Outliers.