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This article does not pretend to criticize or to pay tribute to the theoretical discussion on the nature of colonial knowledge and the way it should be treated. Its main aim is to track the change in a scholar’s methodological approach toward his local assistants that actually affected both sides of this interaction. That was the key factor in the creation of colonial knowledge. Thus, I suggest showing how this interaction was used by both sides for their own benefit and what the strategies and foundations were for that kind of relationship. As the main case for this study, I have chosen Russian Turkologist-encyclopedist Alexander Samoilovich. Almost yearly from 1900 to 1936, Samoilovich attempted to visit regions inhabited by Turkic-speaking groups, and as a result, he was able to form a network of assistants. Therefore, Samoilovich's ideas and self-reflection are crucial for understanding his multiple contacts with the Others and the consequences of these interactions.
Early in 1728, in St. Petersburg, Russia, the Duke of Liria—a Spanish diplomat, prominent Jacobite, and an illegitimate grandson of James II—sought to establish a curiously-titled fraternity called the ‘Order of the Anti-Sober’. Using the surviving charter of the proposed fraternal order as a point of departure, this article reconstructs the context and the meaning of Liria’s initiative. While drinking has traditionally been associated with Russia and in particular with the mores of Peter I’s court, this microstudy helps us to see it as a part of European sociable and diplomatic practices of the era. This episode sheds light not only on the broader evolution of fraternal societies in the early eighteenth century, but also on the mechanisms that drove the spread of such forms of associational life across the continent.
Peter I; Peter II;
Education in early modern Russia has been traditionally described as imported from the West; secular; imposed by the state – or more specifically, by Peter I himself – from above on the unwilling population; driven by the military needs, and therefore, technical. This chapter seeks to examine and to problematize some these theses. Some of them have already been re-assessed by scholars, especially insofar as the role of the church in providing education is concerned. In other cases, the discussion is limited to identifying the gaps in our current understanding and pointing to ways of addressing them. In particular, on the basis of he author's own research as well as that of other scholars, it seeks to outline the responses of the tsar’s subjects to the educational change; problematize the role of the “state” as an actor in this process, and that of Peter I himself; to understand what exactly is meant by the practical/military drivers of educational change and how exactly the role of these drivers could be ascertained; to emphasize the role of non-state, traditional, and informal genres and providers of education in that period. The last two sections seek to place the early modern education in Russia in the Western European context by identifying more precisely what exactly has been borrowed and how this “borrowing,” in fact, resulted in innovative reconfiguring of educational forms; and to discuss the role of early modern Russia as a pioneer, in some sense, of explicitly using education as a tool of social engineering.
As the main tasks of the 18thcentury Russian medicine were the support of the army and navy, and the protection of the empire from the massive diseases, the regular research of local medical phenomena and resources is not clearly distinguished. The present paper attempts to reveal the ways of medical knowledge production and communication through the consideration of crude oil exploration by a Prussian physician in Russian service, Johann Jacob Lerche (1708–1780). Although both his extensive medical activities over different areas of the Russian empire and extensive written heritage drew only fragmentary scholars’ attention, they reflect the great experience of the physician on the research of naturaliawhile performing his professional duties. Crude oil was one of the most remarkable mineral wonders of the Pre‑Caspian region, visited by Lerche twice (1732–1735, 1745–1747). On the basis of three published accounts by Lerche, which contain information on petroleum qualities and its practical significance, the author investigates, how the Baku crude oil as a natural object was invented as a medical resource by an 18thcentury state physician in the Russian empire, through the consideration of the processes of world discovery in the Age of Enlightenment, and the indigenous practices of the oil’s use. Finally, the significance of the author’s professional position of state physician appears to have influenced the argumentation of curative qualities of petroleum, and, moreover, the advantages of its placement.
This paper explores the use of legal imagery in 5th century homilies by Christian authors from Asia Minor writing in Greek. I particularly focus on the idea of legally framed 'redemption' of sinners by Christ.
In recent decades the social history of art has revealed that virtually no piece of art in the Renaissance was created just because of a painter’s intention or desire. It was an expensive undertaking and normally had a commission with the commissioner’s expectations behind it. Renaissance art works have conventional meanings and functions which are not always evident to contemporary viewers. Research on meaning and function – these two basics are deeply imbedded in the historical context – has dramatically changed our understanding of many central artworks, such as Venus of Urbino by Titian or Primavera by Botticcelli. Few attempts have been made to define the possible function of Lady at her Toilette by Giulio Romano from the Moscow Pushkin State Museum. The issues of why and under what circumstances this enigmatic painting was created have not received much scholarly attention. Issues of its function have not been addressed directly – few scholars have questioned why it was created. The present study aims at defining the meaning, the function and the possible patron of this painting.
The" Library "of Patriarch Photius, Codex 52 contains evidence of the Acts of the Council of Side, which is used to be taken as one of the main elements of the "anti-messalian dossier" in the Byzantine Church tradition. Whether this Council took place in fact and in what form is not known. However, the available data suggest a great deal of confusion and possibly falsification of its entire story. The main characters (Lampetius, Sabba, Dadoes etc) from the Syriac side look like fictitious. From the comparison of the names with the Syriac documents (Philoxeni Ad Patricium) follows, that , the chief heretic – "Lampetius/ Malpatius" is a fictitious figure. Behind him hides the Syrian Adelphius, a disciple of St. Julian Sabba. The history of "messalianism" in the light of a new perspective of the research on the Late Antique heresiology appears as a great misunderstanding, caused by the conflict of ascetic models. The Syriac model was based on the idea of apotage (disconnection from the world), which three hundred years later was fully adopted in the Greek asceticism. The dossier of the "messalian heresy" (connected with Ps.-Macarius writings) was further used against the new releigous movements of the Middle Ages (paulicianism, bogomilism). Historical inconsistencies in the middle-century anti-heretic literature ceased to confuse readers, because the whole history of "messianism" turned into a myth.
This paper focuses on the Tsoi Wall in Moscow, an iconic place on Russia’s music map that appeared in Moscow in 1990 in memory of the cult Soviet rock musician Viktor Tsoi, to develop a framework for studying non-auratic music place—that is, places that are not connected with the biographies of musicians or musical events, but emerge directly from the experiences of visitors and fans. These places are constantly negotiated and only lightly formalized, but are nevertheless enduring. To analyze this type of place, we propose a concept of institutionalization “in becoming.” The case of the Tsoi Wall reveals that light formalization (vague and changing positions and rules, and openness to different interpretations of a place and ways of using it) leads to the recognition of the place as a significant one and to its popularity. We put institutionalization “in becoming” in a wider context and juxtapose it with well-studied musical places in Europe and the US.
This paper is a brief case study of a fourth-century Greek epigram from Aegina (IG IV, 53), which is discussed as an instance of 'hybrid' diction bringing together classicizing diction and elements of Christian idiom. I frame my argument within the recent research into late antique epigraphic poetry and the dynamics of the traditional Hellenic and Christian styles in it. The case study, forming part of a Companion to languages in Christianity, seeks to highlight the recent developments in the study of the epigraphic discourse in late antiquity, the issues of literary paideia, and Christianization of the elite.
This volume arises from the international conference 'Hymns of the First Christian Millennium — Doctrinal, Devotional, and Musical Patterns' held in June 2014 at the Institute of Classical Studies in conjunction with King's College London. The original scope of the conference has been re-scaled to focus particularly on late antique Christian devotion as it manifests itself in hymns; experts on a variety of topics of early Christian hymnody have been invited to boost both specificity and depth of discussion in the proposed volume. The resulting collection of papers covers a range of aspects of literary, social, doctrinal, musicological, and devotional patterns of Christian hymnic texts, their liturgical and pious use in the period of late antiquity.
Review of T. Arentzen, The Virgin in Song. Mary and the Poetry of Romanos the Melodist (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017)
This chapter explores the different uses of hymn-singing, both liturgical and devotional, as elements of devotion to, and cult of, saints in late antique Greek-speaking Christian communities
This article looks at dipinti and graffiti by, and about, singers of psalms at the monastery of Apa Apollo at Bawit.
The chapter offers a critical re-consideration of both late antique accounts, and modern scholarly discussions, of the so-called 'heretical hymns' in use in late antique Christian communities.
There is no doubt that "Reconnecting state and kinship" could open a new page in the study of the interrelation of kinship and the state – the problem that has been so essentially important for the development of anthropological thought since the very birth of the discipline.
The article deals with the discussion about theoretical works of B. Porshnev in 1951–1953. The aim of this study was to explain a tremendous shift from the class-based ideological approach to periodization of European history (B. Porshnev) to an economic-oriented approach (E. Kosminsky, S. Skazkin) while the paradigm of «Short Course» and marxist methodology have remained unchanged since the 1930s. Defeating Porshnev wasn’t Kosminsky’s party only piece of struggle for academic freedom. The main results of this discussion was, firstly, the reconfiguration of a convention about what is the objectivity and «scientific statement» in the medievists’ academic community, and, secondly, the final definition of a disciplinary boundaries. The author further stresses that theoretical issues, actively discussed in soviet historiography in the late 1950–1960s, was, in part, initiated by scholars themselves before the death of Stalin, and were not directly related to a political liberalization during the «Khrushchev Thaw».
The article highlights the results of field research conducted in Tanzania from August 24 to September 14, 2018, focused on the historical memory of the Arab slave trade in East Africa and the Indian Ocean in the 19th century and its influence on the interethnic relations in the country nowadays. Structured and non-structured interviews (mostly in-depth) were done in Dar es Salaam, Bagamoyo and Zanzibar. In general, opinions divided almost equally: half of respondents are convinced that the relations are completely good, the other half believe that there are some tensions. Both opinions are well-argued and substantiated, it is possible to trace some patterns in people’s perception. The history of the Arab slave trade lies between family trauma on the one hand, and tolerance, non-discrimination, imposed by the state, on the other. Two ways of reproducing the historical memory largely oppose each other: the school system lays the blame on Europeans, promoting peaceful interethnic relations, presenting the slave trade as an essential part of colonialism, and after that emphasizing the story of overcoming the colonial past, while the oral tradition censors nothing and tells the history of the ancestors’ sufferings in its entirety. Thus, connoisseurs of the oral tradition with a low level of education turn to be the most vulnerable category, they become the least tolerant to Arab-Tanzanians part of the country’s population.
Analysis of draft sheets of the N.M. Karamzin’s “History of the Russian State” reveals previously unattributed references to works of the 18th century and quotations from these works, including, possibly, from the works of I. Kant. Their analysis allows us to consider the philosophical and literary works of the 18th century as part of intellectual culture and experience, with which Karamzin set about creating the “History”. Fragments of drafts are published for the first time.