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By their article, Blanton et al. have proved, as they intended, “that collective action theory should have an important role to play in the search for those factors that underwrite state-building”. Moreover, their article is groundbreaking above all because after its appearance, it will be difficult to ignore anthropological approaches to explanation of the most vital and essential issues of our time, including the fortune of global democracy.
Education in early modern Russia has been traditionally described as imported from the West; secular; imposed by the state – or more specifically, by Peter I himself – from above on the unwilling population; driven by the military needs, and therefore, technical. This chapter seeks to examine and to problematize some these theses. Some of them have already been re-assessed by scholars, especially insofar as the role of the church in providing education is concerned. In other cases, the discussion is limited to identifying the gaps in our current understanding and pointing to ways of addressing them. In particular, on the basis of he author's own research as well as that of other scholars, it seeks to outline the responses of the tsar’s subjects to the educational change; problematize the role of the “state” as an actor in this process, and that of Peter I himself; to understand what exactly is meant by the practical/military drivers of educational change and how exactly the role of these drivers could be ascertained; to emphasize the role of non-state, traditional, and informal genres and providers of education in that period. The last two sections seek to place the early modern education in Russia in the Western European context by identifying more precisely what exactly has been borrowed and how this “borrowing,” in fact, resulted in innovative reconfiguring of educational forms; and to discuss the role of early modern Russia as a pioneer, in some sense, of explicitly using education as a tool of social engineering.
From Comparative to Entangled Histories: Perspectives on the Russian and Ottoman empires
The investigation is dedicated to the image of the medieval academic corporation that was constructed in its graduation processions. It is based on the statutes of the Portuguese university (1431).
This source contains detailed descriptions of required procedures and oaths, clothes, gifts etc. The first part analyzes origins and models of the Portuguese rituals, their relation with the symbolic traditions of other European universities (especially the studium of Bologna). Then it is observed how ‘global’ images of academic representation (that were used by various university corporations) correlated with social and cultural context of Portugal. The cases examined in the second part are: inclusion of the solemn graduation processions in the urban space of Lisbon, clothes as social representation established by the academic corporation in the statutes and by the Royal power (for example, in the Ordenações Afonsinas). So the study investigates how the concepts of corporation’s and estate’s honor were combined in the university status and symbolic practices.
This study raises the problem of the degree of influence of Sovietization on the climate of inter-ethnic relations in the annexed territories of Eastern Poland on the eve and in the first months of the Holocaust. The article focuses on two aspects of Sovietization – first, the Soviet economic policy and the transformation of trade in the Western regions of the BSSR in 1939-1941; second, the change in the social status of local merchants, especially Jewish merchants.
In this publication, the author comes to the conclusion that the Soviet economic transformations in the annexed Polish territories were contradictory. Due to the lack of Soviet trade infrastructure, supply channels, and retail personnel, the new administration resorted to the experience of "former" merchants, among whom were a large number of Polish Jews. As a result of this policy, many "former" merchants managed to get a job in state-owned trade institutions, which was considered very prestigious in the unfavorable economic situation. Under the circumstances, the impressive number of Jews among the employees of the state trade organization contributed to the increase in inter-ethnic tensions. On the other hand, in 1939-1941, most of the "former" traders actually continued their activities on the black market. The wide representation of local Jews in the illegal economy contributed to the fact that the struggle of the official authorities against speculators often looked like a struggle against some Jews. Thus, the acute economic crisis in the annexed Polish regions, as well as the inconsistent Soviet socio-economic policy in these lands, caused an escalation of inter-ethnic tensions and an increase in anti-Semitic sentiment. The socio-economic situation that developed in 1939-1941 under the influence of Soviet policy was one of the factors that provoked a surge of anti-Jewish violence in the summer of 1941.
Educational reforms and introduction of compulsory schooling for nobility are rightly counted among the most import important changes introduced by Peter I in Russia. This article employs a large sample of records from the Heraldry, a government agency in charge of registering nobles for their mandatory service, to assess the spread of literacy among the first post-Petrine generation of the Russian elite and to explore the factors that affected one’ likelihood of being literate. The data suggests that literacy indeed has become the norm among the nobles, and illiteracy, even though not uncommon, came to predominantly be associated with relative social marginality.
The Muslim question in Late Imperial Russia is investigated via the deceptive strategeis of a Muslim jornalist, an impostor and double-dealer; M.-B. Hadjetlaché.. A micro-historical approach is developped.
This article compares widespread methodological approaches to the study of economic history in general, and markets, in particular. It suggests a method of studying economic history different from what is normally done in economic hisotry nowadays, when the whole field belongs to economists. This method implies using historical research tools as well as addressing to hermeneutics.
Male risk-taking behavior is associated with personality traits and correlates with hormone titers, notably for testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Yet, these influences may be stronger in some individuals due to context or profession in which risk-taking occurs. We examine this possibility by investigating relationships of personality, aggression, and sensation seeking with T and C together with anthropometric measures in high risk-taking men: Russian alpinists (n = 55) and members of the Russian Special Forces (n = 33). They provided saliva samples before and after viewing a ~5 min video of aggressive male encounters and completed surveys after this task. After viewing the video, T increased in alpinists but decreased in Special Forces, and C increased in Special Forces. Alpinists scored higher than Special Forces in neuroticism and openness whereas Special Forces scored higher than alpinists in extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Verbal aggression, anger, hostility, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility were higher in alpinists than in Special Forces. Our findings suggest behavioral differences in high risk-taking men, influenced by profession-related individual differences in sensation seeking and hormonal response to challenges.
This article examines the trade in fugitive serfs in eighteenth-century Russia. This trade emerged from two interrelated phenomena—the sale of individual serfs and peasant flight—and was practiced by nobles, merchants, factory owners, and government officials. The acquisition of absent peasants, although seemingly absurd, represented a risky investment from which the new owners could profit upon discovery and reclamation of the fugitives. According to several eighteenth-century decrees, individuals found guilty of accepting fugitives were required to pay monetary compensation to the peasants’ legal owners for each year of harboring. In some instances, the sum of compensation reached staggering amounts of several thousand rubles. Exploiting this legal opportunity, eighteenth-century nobles or “Chichikovs”—named after the protagonist of Nikolai Gogol’s novel Dead Souls—purchased serfs on the run for the specific purpose of making a significant profit by collecting compensation. This article argues that the trade in runaways and “Chichikov schemes” reveals a yet unexplored dimension of Russian serfdom and its influence, both beneficial and ruinous, on the interactions between nobles, and between nobles and other members of imperial society. The article additionally advances the understanding of serfdom as a social framework based on practices and customs rather than on legislation alone.
This article deals with the professional career and with the work of the Russian historian, Vladimir Malov (1938-2019). If he was appreciated in France as an expert on French sources kept in Russian archives, his works on French history were largely unknown in that country, in large part because of the persistence of linguistic, political or economic barriers. However, his career and his research are of great interest. In a difficult context of ideological pressure and then political upheaval, he was able, while playing his role of « ferryman » between the circles of Russian and French historians, to preserve his intellectual independence. He was able to offer documented and original analyzes of a broad spectrum of questions relating to the history of France.
The Triangular Theory of Love (measured with Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale – STLS) is a prominent theoretical concept in empirical research on love. To expand the culturally homoge- neous body of previous psychometric research regarding the STLS, we conducted a large-scale cross- cultural study with the use of this scale. In total, we examined more than 11,000 respondents, but as a result of applied exclusion criteria, the final analyses were based on a sample of 7332 participants from 25 countries (from all inhabited continents). We tested configural invariance, metric invariance, and scalar invariance, all of which confirmed the cultural universality of the theoretical construct of love analyzed in our study. We also observed that levels of love components differ depending on relationship duration, following the dynamics suggested in the Triangular Theory of Love. Supplementary files with all our data, including results on love intensity across different countries along with STLS versions adapted in a few dozen languages, will further enable more extensive research on the Triangular Theory of Love.
The outbreak of the Great Patriotic War led to an unprecedented evacuation of the Soviet population to the East as well as a significant growth of social conflicts. Consequently, open manifestations of anti-Semitism increased greatly, which were often connected with defeatism and anti-Soviet moods. This article analyzes the reasons for this phenomenon and is based on the materials of judicial investigative cases of the Chelyabinsk Regional Court. This article focuses on the state struggle against anti-Semitism, which was considered by the judicial authorities as quasi-anti-Soviet activity and aid to the enemy. This perception was determined by the catastrophic situation of the Red Army, Nazi propaganda against “Judeo-Bolshevism,” and the beginning of the Holocaust in the occupied territories. In these conditions of socio-political instability, mass anti-Semitism required severe punishments. This article’s conclusions allow a revision of the policy of the Soviet state toward the “Jewish issue” during the Second World War.
The book Architects, Konungs, Pontiffs in Medieval Europe, which opens the series Polystoria, is based on research conducted by the Centre for Medieval Studies of the Higher School of Economics on the problems of medieval history of Western and Eastern Europe. The book deals with several aspects of cultural, political and religious interplay on a wide geographical horizon, from Byzantium, Caucasus and Rus’ to Scandinavia and the latin Christendom, from the early Middle Ages to the early Modern Time. Little studied, but still historically important cases and situations, like the visit of the pope to Constantinople in 711, single objects, like the konung Sverrir’s standard, are studied in great detail along with some crucial, and long discussed historiographical hyperthemes, like the genesis of Rus’, the christian architecture in Caucasus, the background of gothic naturalism or the anti-judean polemics. The volume concludes with the first complete and commented russian translation of the De miseria humanae conditionis, written around 1195 by the cardinal Lotario de’ Segni, the treatise to be one the milestone in the history of western religious thought and reflection on the nature of man. The book is intended for historians, philologists, art historians, specialists in religious and cultural studies and political analysts.
The author uses the three criteria of academic classics proposed by I.M. Savelyeva and A.V. Poletaev and analyzes the factors, which made it possible to define the works by a historian S.B. Veselovskiy (1876–1952) as classical ones. The scientometric database Google Scholar (Google Academy) reveals the dynamics and nature of the researchers'
enquiries for the works by S.B. Veselovskiy. The reasons for the formation of his works as classical are considered: internal (academic discourse of the researcher) and external (circumstances of publication of his works since the 1960s; actualization of works in Soviet and post-Soviet historiography). Special attention is paid to the perception of academic heritage and personality of S.B. Veselovskiy in the memory of historians of the Soviet era.
The monograph is dedicated to the functions of the historical argument in the theory of humanities and social theory.