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Early in 1728, in St. Petersburg, Russia, the Duke of Liria—a Spanish diplomat, prominent Jacobite, and an illegitimate grandson of James II—sought to establish a curiously-titled fraternity called the ‘Order of the Anti-Sober’. Using the surviving charter of the proposed fraternal order as a point of departure, this article reconstructs the context and the meaning of Liria’s initiative. While drinking has traditionally been associated with Russia and in particular with the mores of Peter I’s court, this microstudy helps us to see it as a part of European sociable and diplomatic practices of the era. This episode sheds light not only on the broader evolution of fraternal societies in the early eighteenth century, but also on the mechanisms that drove the spread of such forms of associational life across the continent.
Peter I; Peter II;
Education in early modern Russia has been traditionally described as imported from the West; secular; imposed by the state – or more specifically, by Peter I himself – from above on the unwilling population; driven by the military needs, and therefore, technical. This chapter seeks to examine and to problematize some these theses. Some of them have already been re-assessed by scholars, especially insofar as the role of the church in providing education is concerned. In other cases, the discussion is limited to identifying the gaps in our current understanding and pointing to ways of addressing them. In particular, on the basis of he author's own research as well as that of other scholars, it seeks to outline the responses of the tsar’s subjects to the educational change; problematize the role of the “state” as an actor in this process, and that of Peter I himself; to understand what exactly is meant by the practical/military drivers of educational change and how exactly the role of these drivers could be ascertained; to emphasize the role of non-state, traditional, and informal genres and providers of education in that period. The last two sections seek to place the early modern education in Russia in the Western European context by identifying more precisely what exactly has been borrowed and how this “borrowing,” in fact, resulted in innovative reconfiguring of educational forms; and to discuss the role of early modern Russia as a pioneer, in some sense, of explicitly using education as a tool of social engineering.
As the main tasks of the 18thcentury Russian medicine were the support of the army and navy, and the protection of the empire from the massive diseases, the regular research of local medical phenomena and resources is not clearly distinguished. The present paper attempts to reveal the ways of medical knowledge production and communication through the consideration of crude oil exploration by a Prussian physician in Russian service, Johann Jacob Lerche (1708–1780). Although both his extensive medical activities over different areas of the Russian empire and extensive written heritage drew only fragmentary scholars’ attention, they reflect the great experience of the physician on the research of naturaliawhile performing his professional duties. Crude oil was one of the most remarkable mineral wonders of the Pre‑Caspian region, visited by Lerche twice (1732–1735, 1745–1747). On the basis of three published accounts by Lerche, which contain information on petroleum qualities and its practical significance, the author investigates, how the Baku crude oil as a natural object was invented as a medical resource by an 18thcentury state physician in the Russian empire, through the consideration of the processes of world discovery in the Age of Enlightenment, and the indigenous practices of the oil’s use. Finally, the significance of the author’s professional position of state physician appears to have influenced the argumentation of curative qualities of petroleum, and, moreover, the advantages of its placement.
This paper explores the use of legal imagery in 5th century homilies by Christian authors from Asia Minor writing in Greek. I particularly focus on the idea of legally framed 'redemption' of sinners by Christ.
In recent decades the social history of art has revealed that virtually no piece of art in the Renaissance was created just because of a painter’s intention or desire. It was an expensive undertaking and normally had a commission with the commissioner’s expectations behind it. Renaissance art works have conventional meanings and functions which are not always evident to contemporary viewers. Research on meaning and function – these two basics are deeply imbedded in the historical context – has dramatically changed our understanding of many central artworks, such as Venus of Urbino by Titian or Primavera by Botticcelli. Few attempts have been made to define the possible function of Lady at her Toilette by Giulio Romano from the Moscow Pushkin State Museum. The issues of why and under what circumstances this enigmatic painting was created have not received much scholarly attention. Issues of its function have not been addressed directly – few scholars have questioned why it was created. The present study aims at defining the meaning, the function and the possible patron of this painting.
This paper focuses on the Tsoi Wall in Moscow, an iconic place on Russia’s music map that appeared in Moscow in 1990 in memory of the cult Soviet rock musician Viktor Tsoi, to develop a framework for studying non-auratic music place—that is, places that are not connected with the biographies of musicians or musical events, but emerge directly from the experiences of visitors and fans. These places are constantly negotiated and only lightly formalized, but are nevertheless enduring. To analyze this type of place, we propose a concept of institutionalization “in becoming.” The case of the Tsoi Wall reveals that light formalization (vague and changing positions and rules, and openness to different interpretations of a place and ways of using it) leads to the recognition of the place as a significant one and to its popularity. We put institutionalization “in becoming” in a wider context and juxtapose it with well-studied musical places in Europe and the US.
This paper is a brief case study of a fourth-century Greek epigram from Aegina (IG IV, 53), which is discussed as an instance of 'hybrid' diction bringing together classicizing diction and elements of Christian idiom. I frame my argument within the recent research into late antique epigraphic poetry and the dynamics of the traditional Hellenic and Christian styles in it. The case study, forming part of a Companion to languages in Christianity, seeks to highlight the recent developments in the study of the epigraphic discourse in late antiquity, the issues of literary paideia, and Christianization of the elite.
This volume arises from the international conference 'Hymns of the First Christian Millennium — Doctrinal, Devotional, and Musical Patterns' held in June 2014 at the Institute of Classical Studies in conjunction with King's College London. The original scope of the conference has been re-scaled to focus particularly on late antique Christian devotion as it manifests itself in hymns; experts on a variety of topics of early Christian hymnody have been invited to boost both specificity and depth of discussion in the proposed volume. The resulting collection of papers covers a range of aspects of literary, social, doctrinal, musicological, and devotional patterns of Christian hymnic texts, their liturgical and pious use in the period of late antiquity.
Review of T. Arentzen, The Virgin in Song. Mary and the Poetry of Romanos the Melodist (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017)
This chapter explores the different uses of hymn-singing, both liturgical and devotional, as elements of devotion to, and cult of, saints in late antique Greek-speaking Christian communities
This article looks at dipinti and graffiti by, and about, singers of psalms at the monastery of Apa Apollo at Bawit.
The chapter offers a critical re-consideration of both late antique accounts, and modern scholarly discussions, of the so-called 'heretical hymns' in use in late antique Christian communities.
There is no doubt that "Reconnecting state and kinship" could open a new page in the study of the interrelation of kinship and the state – the problem that has been so essentially important for the development of anthropological thought since the very birth of the discipline.
The article deals with the discussion about theoretical works of B. Porshnev in 1951–1953. The aim of this study was to explain a tremendous shift from the class-based ideological approach to periodization of European history (B. Porshnev) to an economic-oriented approach (E. Kosminsky, S. Skazkin) while the paradigm of «Short Course» and marxist methodology have remained unchanged since the 1930s. Defeating Porshnev wasn’t Kosminsky’s party only piece of struggle for academic freedom. The main results of this discussion was, firstly, the reconfiguration of a convention about what is the objectivity and «scientific statement» in the medievists’ academic community, and, secondly, the final definition of a disciplinary boundaries. The author further stresses that theoretical issues, actively discussed in soviet historiography in the late 1950–1960s, was, in part, initiated by scholars themselves before the death of Stalin, and were not directly related to a political liberalization during the «Khrushchev Thaw».
Analysis of draft sheets of the N.M. Karamzin’s “History of the Russian State” reveals previously unattributed references to works of the 18th century and quotations from these works, including, possibly, from the works of I. Kant. Their analysis allows us to consider the philosophical and literary works of the 18th century as part of intellectual culture and experience, with which Karamzin set about creating the “History”. Fragments of drafts are published for the first time.
The article examines financial and statistical aspects of the materials from the Interdepartmental Commission for the Revision of Medical Legislation (the G.E. Rejn commission). The paper contains brief analysis of structure, composition and mechanism and indicates the specifics of its materials. The author looks for the information sources underlying the statistical calculations of the commission and dwells briefly on calculations themselves. Special attention is paid to methods for calculating the financial losses resulting from diseases in the Russian Empire. The study focuses on state health statistics projects and on the financial foundations for the new healthcare system as well as on their perception by the participants of the Pirogov Society. The data obtained by the commission was used for devising plans for optimization and centralization of healthcare, according to which sanitary statistics were to be subordinate to the state. However, it meant financial assistance to local self-government bodies for sanitary needs. Although the doctors from the Pirogov Society were critical of most of the commission’s ideas, in the matter of financing they not only agreed to the main proposals of the commission but also were ready to go a little further.
According to modern views on human bio-sociality, Big Five person- ality traits have been shaped in the process of human evolution and their expression is an outcome of the complex interaction of prenatal predispositions and cultural environment. Present study investigates the impact of prenatal androgenization and cultural norms on the per- sonality traits in adult men from four ethnic groups living on the terri- tory of Russian Federation. The study was conducted on 263 young men (age range 17–30 years), including Russians, Armenians, Ob- Ugric and Buryats. The results revealed significant population diffe- rences in 2D:4D ratios on both hands, with lowest ratios for Asian sample, increasing in populations to the West. Significant ethnic dif- ferences were found for Openness to New Experience, Conscientious- ness, and Neuroticism. Positive association between 2D:4D ratios on the right hand and Agreeableness in men with no respect to population origin was detected. This relationship becomes stronger, when controlling for aggressiveness.