School Head — Alexander Kamenskii
Deputy Head — Dmitriy Dobrowolski
105066 Moscow, Staraya Basmannaya 21/4, building 3
Phone: +7 (495) 772 95 90 * 2 28 58
This article deals with the treatment of money in Karamzin’s Letters of a Russian Traveler. Our approach combines biographical research with new insights into the text in an effort to shed light on the notorious matter of the source of Karamzin’s funding during his foreign travel in 1789-1790, and to understand his attitude to monetary transactions as it is revealed in the travelogue. This, in turn, allows us to deal with the contested issue of Karamzin’s status as a “literary professional.” These matters have been discussed on a number of occasions (Klioutchkine 1997, Klein 2008, Panofsky 2010, to mention only most recent publications). Existing studies, however, have avoided analyzing numbers and performing calculations, even if most of the questions they posed could not be convincingly resolved without recourse to quantifiable data. Needless to say, the information available to us is not exhaustive, and in many cases we have to rely on estimates, conjectures and approximations. However, even this level of precision affords us a more complete understanding of many important aspects of Karamzin’s biography and literary position, as well as the development of his economic thought.
The Schneerson collection — former property of the Schneerson family of the Chabad Lubavitch hasidic rebbes – was nationalized after the 1917 Russian revolution, and is now a prominent example of looted cultural property. The Chabad Lubavitch movement made great efforts to recover the library; however, the collection was not restituted and the legal proceedings are still ongoing. The Russian government is not willing to surrender the collection under any circumstances nor has it any legal basis for its restitution. What makes the situation even more complicated is that the collection had no authentic inventory and after being nationalized, the Schneerson books were mixed in with other volumes at the Russian State Library’s main repository. The identification of the original Schneerson books remains challenging; however, research on the signs of reliable ownership signs continues to bring results.
The paper considers the emergence of early Soviet forensic psychiatry, which was established as an academic discipline and clinical practice in the 1920s and 1930s. Basing on the materials of professional congresses, scientific works, legal and official records, the research examines, how psychiatrists sought to define their tasks and professional jurisdiction. Bolsheviks gave professionals an opportunity to reform forensic psychiatric expertise and their status in criminal procedure. More importantly, the relative intellectual freedom and ambiguity of early Soviet criminal codes allowed them to embody scientific understanding of criminal and criminality in psychiatric practice and theory. A group of Soviet psychiatrists (including E. Krasnushkin and N. Brukhansky) shared a view, which linked antisocial behavior of criminals with their pathological predisposition. The broad category of “borderline” illness, - particularly, class of psychopaths, - were medicalized and included in jurisdiction of forensic psychiatry. Thus, practitioners of the discipline tried to establish psychiatric control in prisons. But situation changed in 1930s: in response to “political” challenges of stalinization, the discipline started to rearrange its own professional sphere. First of all, the category of psychopaths was redefine and narrowed. Since that time only prisoners with organic deseases could be found irresponsible and subjected to coercive treatment, while all “borderline” cases of «socially dangerous» were transferred from medicine to penal system. Second, it changed tasks of the discipline. While in the 1920s studies of psychiatrists embraced the wide range of issues, especially, a link between criminality and mental illness, and the main goal was formulated as a social expertise (in a broad sense), in the middle of the 1930s forensic psychiatry restricted it to more practical aim – to provide judicial agencies with expert opinions about accused’ mental condition. This turn was concerned with reorintation of professional jurisdiction and institutionalization of forensic psychiatry under the conditions of stalinization of science and hardening of criminal justice.
This article analyzes the long episode of 1917-1918 when the Diaghilev’s choreographic enterprise performances took place in Lisbon. The Russian Seasons ’ performances were greeted with delight only by ballet critics and modern artists, authors of Orpheu and Portugal Futurista, but the audience accepted them coldly. The authors of the article explain this paradox as follows: 1) the public's involvement in a rapidly changing political (revolutionary) context, 2) the "elitism" of the artistic concept of Diaghilev's aesthetic experiments. All this fits into the paradigm of the "new art" - in this case, the novelty of the artistic concepts of Diaghilev's enterprise in the context of Portuguese modernism.
The article explores the role of accounting and reforms of financial management practices in 18th century Russian state administration and finance combining historical and comparative levels of analysis.
The article analyses the passages about different kinds of water used in the latin liturgy and described in the Rationale of the famous liturgist Guillaume Durand, Bishop of Mende.
In this paper, we explore the history of general land surveying in Russia.
In 1945 Europe was a vast graveyard. The diaspora of the dead was perhaps most prominent in Germany, where the fallen of the four occupying forces, as well as other nationals, were spread across the country. As the allies worked through the postwar settlement with Germany and its allies, they considered another pressing question: How to treat the dead? This presentation explores how the dead became a point of contact, conflict and contrast in Germany that provide a window into the dynamics of power sharing between the occupiers. The politics of the sacred demanded that each of the four allies enter into uneasy interactions and compromises, even as the lines in the Cold War hardened.
The chapter is on Russian Empress Catherine the Great and her methods of administration.