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This article analyzes the long episode of 1917-1918 when the Diaghilev’s choreographic enterprise performances took place in Lisbon. The Russian Seasons ’ performances were greeted with delight only by ballet critics and modern artists, authors of Orpheu and Portugal Futurista, but the audience accepted them coldly. The authors of the article explain this paradox as follows: 1) the public's involvement in a rapidly changing political (revolutionary) context, 2) the "elitism" of the artistic concept of Diaghilev's aesthetic experiments. All this fits into the paradigm of the "new art" - in this case, the novelty of the artistic concepts of Diaghilev's enterprise in the context of Portuguese modernism.
The article explores the role of accounting and reforms of financial management practices in 18th century Russian state administration and finance combining historical and comparative levels of analysis.
The article analyses the passages about different kinds of water used in the latin liturgy and described in the Rationale of the famous liturgist Guillaume Durand, Bishop of Mende.
In 1945 Europe was a vast graveyard. The diaspora of the dead was perhaps most prominent in Germany, where the fallen of the four occupying forces, as well as other nationals, were spread across the country. As the allies worked through the postwar settlement with Germany and its allies, they considered another pressing question: How to treat the dead? This presentation explores how the dead became a point of contact, conflict and contrast in Germany that provide a window into the dynamics of power sharing between the occupiers. The politics of the sacred demanded that each of the four allies enter into uneasy interactions and compromises, even as the lines in the Cold War hardened.
The history of communism in South Africa began with the formation in 1921 of the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA). The party was entirely white, as was the majority of organized labor—its main constituency. The CPSA attempted to fight for equality of black and white workers, but white labor refused to desegregate, and the party’s support among Africans was practically nonexistent. In 1928, the Communist International (Comintern), of which the CPSA was a member, sent it an instruction to work for an “independent native republic.” This slogan helped the party to attract a black membership, but resulted in much infighting.
The CPSA’s position strengthened during World War II, but in 1950, after Afrikaner nationalists came to power, the party was banned. It re-emerged in 1953 as the underground South African Communist Party (SACP). Since then, the party has worked closely with the African National Congress (ANC). Many of its cadres were simultaneously ANC members. In 1955, communists helped to formulate the Freedom Charter, the ANC’s overarching program. In 1960, the SACP launched the armed struggle against apartheid. The ANC took the nascent liberation army under its wing in 1963. In the early 1960s, many party members, including Nelson Mandela, were arrested or forced into exile.
The party had a deep ideological influence on the ANC: from 1969, its ideas on South Africa as a colony of a special type and on the National Democratic Revolution (NDR) have become part of all ANC programs.
After the end of apartheid, communists occupied important positions in all ANC governments. Despite this, many in the SACP have been unhappy with the direction the ANC has taken. However, the party has not contested elections on its own, trying instead to influence ANC policies from inside. This has cost it its reputation as a militant revolutionary party
In this article I compare the views on the harmony of the world of two thinkers acitve in South Italy in the first third of the XIIIth century: astrologer and translator Michael Scot and poet Gregory of Holy Mountain, abbot of Santissima Trinità on Gargano.
In the 11–13th century after the relics of Isidore of Seville had been transferred from Seville occupied Muslims in Christian to Leon, Leon diocese began to form a cult of the saint. The development of this cult was due to the writings of Lucas de Tuy, canon of San Isidoro’s Cathedral, later Bishop of Tuy in Galicia. The article analyzes the image of Isidore in his historical work, «Chronicon mundi», which covers the period from the Creation to the capture of Cordoba by Christians in 1236. The author analyses what sources used by Lucas de Tuy to create an image of St. Isidore, and shows his infl uence on further chronicles. For example, Isidore of Lucas appears as teacher and legislator of Spain, the guardian of the true faith, as opposed to the Prophet Muhammad, which, according to Lucas, he was almost met. Moreover, Isidore predicted not only the Arab conquest, but the subsequent Reconquista, and therefore one of Spain patrons Christians.
Dynastic Power And Name-Giving Principles In Kievan And Muscovite Rus’ (10th - 16th Centuries)
The political history of Khwarezm at the turn of the 13th century is associated with two outstanding representatives of the Anushteginid dynasty, Khwarezm Shahs Ala ad-Din Tekish and Ala al-Din, who brought the state to become one of the largest and most powerful countries in the Islamic East. The expansion and strengthening of the state entity begins already in 1157, following the death of Seljuq Sultan Sanjar (1118–1157) [11, pp. 153; 10, pp. 32–33], when Khwarezmian rulers become actually independent. The reign of Khwarezm Shah Abu-lFath Il Arslan (1156–1172) was marked by their joining the struggle over the Seljuqid legacy. It is beyond doubt that Khwarezm had numerous rivals, who did their best to take advantage of the power vacuum, trying to expand their territories as far as possible and thus succeed the Seljuq rulers. In spite of Khwarezm's military success in Khorasan, Gorgan, Dihistan, and the Persian Iraq, the Kara Khitan people and regional rulers of Transoxiana dependent on them became the most important opponents of Il Arslan [10, pp. 35; 9, p. 398]. It should be noted that Khwarezm Shah Il Arslan allied with Karluk tribes [34, p. 131] or, according to later sources, the Kipchaks [83, vol. 1, p. 239] in order to enhance his military power and confront the enemy. The former variant appears more plausible. It is more important, however, that Turkic nomads were crucial to the Khwarezmian military apparatus already during Il Arslan's rule. Please mind that Khwarezm's military alliance with Turkic tribes was to become very typical during the reign of his descendants, which practice is described in detail below.
The article proposes a comparative analysis of some texts and sculptures, from the middle XIIth century to the middle XIIIth century, that, in author’s opinion, can explain the much discussed origins of the « gothic » naturalism. In the first part, the author gives a critical review of some historiografic discussions on this crucial art-historical problem, from Vöge to Sauerländer, Büchsel, and Recht. Since a necessity of studying the renaissance of physiognomy in that precise period was many times formulated, the second part of the article tries to reassess the importance of the Liber physonomie, written by Michael Scot around 1230 and still unedited. The first critical edition of this first western latin physiognomical treatise is now being prepared by the author. Here, he tries to find parallels in Scot’s view on homo organicus and the well known naturalistic trends not only in Frederick II’s Regnum, but also in the North, from Chartres and Reims to Bamberg and Naumburg.
This article introduces the problematic of harmony in the context of intellectual history of the Middle Ages
The article examines the political and administrative functions of the zemstvos in Arkhangel´sk province in northern Russia during the Civil War. Zemstvos were liquidated in the province in early 1918 after the Bolsheviks’ seizure of power, but later resumed their work under the anti‑Bolshevik Provisional Government of Northern Russia between mid‑1918 and 1920. The reinstated zemstvos enjoyed significant popular support in the North. Still, in the conditions of the Civil War, they abandoned their role as public forums for debating and solving local problems, and instead became an instrument in the government’s policies aimed at mobilizing people and resources for the war. The centralization of the zemstvo self‑government closely mirrored the consolidation of the Bolshevik and Soviet party apparatus that took place at the same time on the other side of the Civil War front.
These collected studies are results of research on problems of medieval history of Eastern and Western Europe, realized by the Center of Medieval Studies of the Higher School of Economics. They deal with several aspects of cultural, political and religious interplay on a wide geographical horizon, from Byzantium, Caucasus and Rus’ to Scandinavia and the latin Christendom, from the early Middle Ages to the early Modern Time. Little studied, but still historically important cases and situations, like the visit of the Pope to Constantinople in 711, single objects, like the konung Sverrir’s standard, are studied in great detail along with some crucial, and long discussed historiographical hyperthemes, like the genesis of Rus’, the Christian architecture in Caucasus, the background of gothic naturalism or the anti-judean polemics. The volume concludes with the first complete and commented russian translation of the De miseria humanae conditionis, written around 1195 by the cardinal Lotario de’ Segni, the treatise to be one the milestone in the history of western religious thought and reflection on the nature of man.
The book is intended for historians, philologists, art historians, specialists in religious and cultural studies and political analysts.
In Peter the Great’s time there were no sociological surveys of the population, and all our data on commoner attitudes toward the monarchy, no matter how seemingly abundant, are in fact purely incidental. With some exception, we learn of attitudes toward power only from those either involved in investigations or put on trial. For this reason, it is impossible to come to a conclusion about the relationship to authority—whether skeptical, indiferent, or reverential— that prevailed within either diferent social groups or the population as a whole. Nevertheless, there is evidence to suggest that a signifcant portion of the common folk treated the tsar’s authority with great respect. I hope that I have successfully shown that such respect was not superfcial or just for show but sincere. In any case, these sources do not support the conclusion that Peter’s politics dealt a deathblow to popular veneration of the monarch.
In Raised under Stalin, Seth Bernstein shows how Stalin's regime provided young people with opportunities as members of the Young Communist League or Komsomol even as it surrounded them with violence, shaping socialist youth culture and socialism more broadly through the threat and experience of war. Informed by declassified materials from post-Soviet archives, as well as films, memoirs, and diaries by and about youth, Raised under Stalin explains the divided status of youth for the Bolsheviks: they were the "new people" who would someday build communism, the potential soldiers who would defend the USSR, and the hooligans who might undermine it from within.
Bernstein explains how, although Soviet revolutionary youth culture began as the preserve of proletarian activists, the Komsomol transformed under Stalin to become a mass organization of moral education; youth became the targets of state repression even as Stalin’s regime offered them the opportunity to participate in political culture. Raised under Stalin follows Stalinist youth into their ultimate test, World War II. Even as the war against Germany decimated the ranks of Young Communists, Bernstein finds evidence that it cemented Stalinist youth culture as a core part of socialism.
The study concentrates on political ceremonies in the first part of the "Golden Bull" of 1356. Ti is argued with what means the ceremonial was instrumentalised vor visualisation of the Empire, on the one hand, and for establishing of consent within the political elites.
Tens of millions of Soviet citizens lived among a national group to which they did not belong. Upheaval resulting from war, revolution, aggressive industrialization drives, and forced migrations resulted in significant population mixing. To examine this process, Eric Scott, athour of 'Familiar Strangers: The Georgian Diaspora and the Evolution of the Soviet Empire' offers his case study of the Georgian diaspora, analyzing the political, social, cultural, and economic aspects of its development. This is review article about Eric Scott book.
When the Mongol-Khwarezmian (1219–1221) war broke out, the state of Anushteginid Khwarezm Shahs in addition to the Khwarezm Region included the following territories: Transoxiana, Khorasan, and the territories of today's Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. To delineate its territory, the northern border ran along the right bank of the Syr Darya, where Otrar was considered the main frontier city, up to the Aral Sea. The northern shores of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman formed its natural southern border, while the Indus presented the south-eastern frontier of the Khwarezmian domain. Ala ad-Din Muhammad's state reached the Pamir and the Sulaiman Mountains in the east and the Zagros Mountains in the east, in particular covering Persian Iraq. The ruler was so powerful that, according to a number of medieval historians, the states of Shirvan Shahs and Azerbaijani atabegs were regarded as dependents on it